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COMPLETE FEEDLOT FINISHER II

A complete feedlot diet of high quailty sources of protein and fibre. 21.1% of protein drivied from urea

During the first week additional roughage must be fed to facilitate adaption. Feed rotation ad lib

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BEES LEKKONSENTRAAT

Bees Lekkonsentraat is a Winter Lick concentrate which can be used to home mix:

  • A Winter Lick for cattle on dry winterveld

  • A Production Lick for cattle during late winter

The Winter Lick is used to maintain body weight during the dry season by supplementing protein which is deficient in natural grazing, and acting as a ruminant stimulant, which enhances the activities of the rumen bacteria, delivering better utilization of roughage.

The Production Lick is used to increase body condition score on low quality roughage in order to enhance the animal’s chances on conception

Bees Lekkonsentraat should be mixed according to the recommended mixing instructions

WARNING
This product contains NPN sources

WARNING
BEES LEKKONSENTRAAT should not be used to supplement sheep

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SUMMERPHOS P9

This is a rain resistant, ready mixed, phosphorus supplement for ruminants on green summerveld.  It contains 9% P (phosphate) compared to a traditional 6% Phosphate - salt lick.  Summerphos P9 contains a molasses by-product to increase palatability. 

The content of salt has been reduced to support higher intakes.  Summerphos P9 contains 16.5% protein which serves as a rumen stimulant and digestion aid. 

The additional protein prolongs the usage of Summerphos P9 into the dry season as a Transitional Lick.  Trace elements that are crucial to enhanced fertility have been added.

The objective is to increase cow/ewe weight, reproductive performance and calf/lamb performance by supplementing 12g of phosphorus / cow / day and 1.5g of phosphorus / sheep / day. The result will be a better condition score on animals entering the dry season which will result in:

  • Lower cost of overwintering

  • Higher rate of re-conception in the following season; and

  • Better weaning weights

Feed ad lib. as soon as sustainable green summerveld is available and animals are in a positive weight balance. Do not feed if persistent rain falls – rather allow animals to increase daily intakes on sunshine days

WARNING
This product contains NPN sources

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SKAAP EN BEES LEK

Skaap en Bees Lek is a ready-mixed Maintenance Lick for cattle and sheep. Skaap en Bees Lek contains:

  • A high level of natural protein

  • The correct levels of macro minerals to ensure optimal metabolic function

  • Sufficient levels of sulphur to enable the rumen microbes to effectively convert NPN to protein

  • All the essential trace minerals with emphasis on those associated with fertility

  • A combination of sugars (molasses) and starches (grain) resulting in a synergistic energy component in the lick

Skaap en Bees Lek can be fed to cattle and sheep grazing together. Due to the higher natural protein content of the product, it is suggested that heifers be grouped with sheep while being supplemented with this product. Skaap en Bees Lek is a perfect Maintenance Lick for sheep. Skaap en Bees Lek can be used for heifers during the dry season

Skaap en Bees Lek can be fed out of the bag to cattle and sheep with the following recommended intakes:

  • Cattle 600 - 750g/animal/day

  • Sheep 100 - 120g/animal/day

WARNING
This product contains NPN sources

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ELITE SHEEP 33 CONCENTRATE

Elite Sheep 33 Concentrate is a lick concentrate for the home mixing of licks for sheep. Elite Sheep 33 Concentrate has been developed to provide the best possible protein balance in licks for sheep. It contains relatively low levels of urea and high levels of natural proteins.

It is high in by-pass protein and especially rich in the essential amino acids methionine and lysine. Due to its unique protein balance, Elite Sheep 33 Concentrate will achieve excellent results when used as a concentrate for licks for dry and growing sheep and will achieve best results when used in licks for ewes in late gestation and for lactating ewes. Wool breeds will benefit greatly from the composition of this product

Elite Sheep 33 Concentrate should never be fed as is, but must be mixed according to the recommended mixing instructions

WARNING
This product contains NPN sources

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BEEF BOOSTER 18

Beef Booster 18 is a ready mixed protein, -mineraI, -trace mineraI, -energy supplement for:

  • Rearing of heifers and ewes on high quality roughage and green veld or pastures

  • Rearing and finishing of weaners and lambs on green veld and pastures

  • Grasslotting

  • Creepfeed for calves and lambs

Beef Booster 18 contains high levels of natural protein with by-pass protein.  Beef Booster 18 contains Lasalocid which can lead to a 22% gain in growth efficiency on good green veld or pastures.  Beef Booster 18 contains Zinc Bacitracin which enhances efficiency of growth.  It is very profitable to use Beef Booster 18 on green summerveld combined with a hormonal ear implant.

Feed Beef Booster 18 to maximize growth of heifers and ewes in order to increase conception and re-conception rates; to maximize growth of weaners and lambs for maximum profit gain

Recommended feed intake (g/animal/day):

  • Heifers 1200 - 1500

  • Sheep 250 - 300

  • Weaners 1200 - 1500

  • Lambs 225 - 250

WARNING
This product contains ionophores and must not be fed to Horses
This product contains NPN sources

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SUPREME 20

Supreme 20 is a ready-mixed Production Lick. Supreme 20 can be used:

  • To increase body condition score before the breeding season

  • As a Transition Lick between seasons or as an Autumn Lick supplement

  • To steam up bulls and rams before the breeding season

  • As a dry cow mixture to help prevent milk fever

  • To supplement energy before and after calving /lambing

  • To restore body condition after disease, relieve transit stress or other stress that may lead to loss of weight

Supreme 20 can be fed as a ready-mixed production lick from the bag as is

Recommended feed intakes (g/animal/day):

  • Cattle 1200 - 1500

  • Sheep 200 - 300

WARNING
This product contains NPN sources

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LAMBING LICK 

This is a ready mixed complete protein, -energy, -trace mineral Production Lick for supplementation of:

  • Ewes that are six weeks from lambing, until six weeks after lambing

  • Wool producing breeds throughout the year

Lambing Lick contains high levels of natural protein with a relatively high by-pass protein value

Lambing Lick stimulates udder health, milk production and colostrum quality in lambing ewes, ensuring weaning of strong, healthy lambs. Lambing Lick promotes wool growth. Although this product is suited for the supplementation of heifers on dormant grazing, refer to Production Lick for better results

Recommended intake (g/animal/day):

  • Sheep 200 - 250

  • Heifers 1100 - 1200

WARNING
This product contains NPN sources

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WINTERBREKER READYMIX

Winterbreker Readymix is a Maintenance Lick aimed at the summer rainfall area, which can be used as follows:

  • A Maintenance Lick for cattle and sheep on low quality roughage

  • A Production Lick for cattle and sheep grazing low quality roughage

Winterbreker Readymix is used to maintain body weight during the dry season by supplementing protein which is deficient in natural grazing, and acting as a ruminant stimulant, which enhances the activities of the rumen bacteria, delivering better utilization of roughage.

The Production Lick is used to increase body condition score in order to enhance the animal’s chances of conception

Winterbreker Readymix can be fed ad lib straight out of the bag to cattle and sheep. Recommended intakes are:

  • 550 - 600g/cow/day

  • 90 - 100g/sheep/day

WARNING
This product contains NPN sources

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RUMINANT BLOCK

Ruminant Block is a Protein, Mineral, Trace mineral Supplement for cattle, sheep and goats on low quality roughage. The product will be used by dairy farmers, cattle farmers and sheep farmers and is specifically handy where all species are found on one farm, grazing the same camps from time to time.

Ruminant Block is used to supplement the natural shortage of protein during the dry season. Ruminant Block also provides the necessary minerals and trace minerals, which lead to maximum fertility and reproduction.

The balance between natural protein, NPN and energy sources will enhance rumen microbial activity and cause the animal to optimally utilize the available roughage. Ruminant Block is an easy way of supplementation in hard to reach areas, such as mountainous camps, and where animals can not be visited frequently

Recommended feed intake (g/animal/day):

  • Cattle 600 - 800

  • Small ruminants 120 - 140

WARNING
This product contains NPN sources

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BUFFER LICK

Buffer Lick is a ready mixed Production Lick with the specific purpose of limiting the incidence of acidosis while cattle and sheep are grazing crop residue after harvesting.  Buffer Lick can be used very successfully to grow young animals on un-harvested maize crops

Buffer Lick also contains ionophores which increase the growth rate of animals on low quality roughage and increase the utilization of nutrients

Buffer Lick is used to increase body condition score of cows and ewes on crop residues

Buffer Lick must be fed ad lib out of the bag and should not be diluted or tampered with for the following reasons:

  • Dilution will adversely affect the concentration of medicaments that will affect the efficacy
    the product as a buffer

  • Adding any product (such as salt) which affects the palatability will decrease the voluntary intake of this product and thus also cause dilution of medicaments and nutrients.

Animals designated to grazing crop residue must be fed Buffer Lick ad lib for 14 days prior to being placed on crop residue. It is advisable to adapt the animals gradually to a high energy ration as in a feedlot situation

Recommended feed intake (g/animal/day):

  • Cattle 1000 - 1200

  • Sheep 200 - 400

WARNING
This product contains ionophores and must not be fed to Horses

WARNING
This product contains NPN sources

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GAME BLOCK

Game Block is a source of Protein and Trace minerals to be supplemented to game. Game Block can be supplemented to all types of antelope and ruminant game. Aloe powder is included in this product as a standard according to the recommended inclusion levels of the manufacturers thereof

Recommended intake (g/animal/day):

  • Bigger game 950 - 1200

  • Smaller game 200 - 300

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PADDOCK SUPPLEMENT

Paddock Supplement is a NPN free lick for the supplementation of minerals and trace minerals on fertilized and irrigated pastures.  Paddock Supplement contains high levels of by-pass protein, molasses for increased palatability, and high levels of trace minerals to supplement deficient pastures.  This product also contains an ionophore to further enhance growth and better utilization of the available grazing

Feed ad lib. on pastures with recommended intakes of:

  • Cattle 400 - 600g /animal/day

  • Sheep 80 - 100g /animal/day

WARNING
This product contains ionophores and must not be fed to Horses

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PRODUCTION LICK

This is a ready mixed complete protein, -energy, -trace mineral Production Lick for supplementation of:

  • Cows that are in a weak condition during the dry season, especially before calving when roughage sources are limited and the quality thereof very low

  • Bulls and rams, as a steam-up ration from two months before the onset of the breeding season

  • Heifers and young, growing bulls on low quality grazing (winter veld)

Production Lick is the ideal product for the rearing of the breeding herd (Heifers) during the dry season. The product contains good quality protein, energy, and trace minerals to achieve optimal growth under limiting grazing circumstances.

Production Lick will stimulate the rumen to optimize the utilization of low quality grazing and roughage. The ionophore in Production Lick further ensures that the animals will gain condition, and/or weight under these sub-optimal conditions

Supplementing cows with will have a positive effect on the condition of cows, which will be reflected in a better conception rate, milk production and weaning weights

Production Lick is also very well suited to increase body condition before the mating season as a steam-up ration. Any animal that has lost body condition due to stress, disease, transport etc., will benefit greatly from this product

Recommended feed intake (g/animal/day):

  • Cattle 1200 - 1500

  • Sheep 200 - 300

WARNING
This product contains NPN sources

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ENERGY BLOCK 

Energy Block is a source of Energy, Minerals and Trace mineral supplementation to all classes of livestock.  Although not classified as a Protein source Energy Block 5upplIcs sufficient protein to stimulate rumen microbes and increase the voluntary dry matter intake and digestibility of consumed roughages

Energy Block can be supplemented to dairy, cattle and sheep on grazing and/or pastures or complete feeds where sufficient protein is supplied by the dry matter, but where energy minerals and trace minerals is deficient. Energy Block is an ideal supplement before mating, calving / lambing, and where animals need to improve in body condition score

Recommended feed intake (g/animal/day):

  • Cattle 950 - 1000

  • Sheep 180 - 240

WARNING
This product contains NPN sources

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SHEEP LEKKER LICK BLOCK

Sheep Lekker Lick Block is a Protein, Mineral, Trace mineral, Energy Supplement to be used before, during and after lambing, and that could be used all year round for wool breeds.

During lambing this product assists the ewe with udder development, milk production and prevents thick colostrum which is often the cause of ewes rejecting lambs. The result will be healthier, stronger and heavier weaned lambs, and ewes that will recover quicker and has increased chances of re-conception

Recommended feed intake (g/animal/day):

  • Sheep 200 - 395

WARNING
This product contains NPN sources

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HITECH FEEDLOT 50 CONCENTRATE

Hitech Feedlot 50 Concentrate is a finishing protein concentrate for ruminants.  Hitech Feedlot 50 Concentrate can be included in different ratios with grain to produce a semi-complete or complete finishing ration for cattle and sheep.  Hitech Feedlot 50 Concentrate can be mixed to make a complete ration or can be fed in a cafeteria system

For the best results follow the mixing instructions or consult SNYMAN FEEDS

WARNING
This product contains ionophores and must not be fed to Horses
This product contains NPN sources

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MULTIMIX 40 CONCENTRATE 

Multimix 40 Concentrate is a NPN-free protein - trace mineral concentrate to be used to home mix:

  • Sheep Maintenance Protein Licks

  • Beef Maintenance Protein Licks

  • Production Licks for sheep

  • Production Licks for beef

  • Energy Licks

Mix and feed according to the recommended instructions

 
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HPC 64

HPC 64 is an ionophore-free, low inclusion finishing concentrate for ruminants. Therefore HPC 64 is suitable for use in production systems where the use of ionophores is not permitted.  HPC 64 can be included in different ratios with raw ingredients listed to produce complete finishing rations for cattle and sheep.  HPC 64 can be used to mix other on-farm feeds, consult SNYMAN FEEDS

WARNING
This product contains NPN sources

This is a concentrate and should not be fed unmixed

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HPC 85 

HPC 85 is a low inclusion finishing concentrate for ruminants.  HPC 85 can be included in different ratios with grain to produce a semi or complete finishing ration for cattle and sheep.  HPC 85 can be mixed to a complete ration or can be fed as a cafeteria system.  HPC 85 can be used to mix other on-farm feeds, consult SNYMAN FEEDS

WARNING
This product contains ionophores and must not be fed to Horses

WARNING
This product contains NPN sources

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DROUGHT CUBES 10

A cost effective product with a wide ranges of uses providing the ruminant (cattle, sheep, goats and game) with nutrients for optimal production. Mainly used in times of drought (shortage of roughage). 10mm cube for ease of feeding. 28.7% of protein is derived from urea

FEEDING RECOMMENDATIONS

  • To be fed as a roughage in times of shortage

  • Can be used in conjunction with limited roughage

  • 10mm cube to allow for feeding direct into veld or on the fence line

EXPECTED FEED INTAKES

Amount will vary dependent on circumstances but not to exceed 3% of live weight

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ELECTROLYTE

Use as a replenishment aid for lost essential vitamins, antioxidants, free-flowing agent

Dissolve 90g (one sachet) of Electrolyte in 2 litres of lukewarm water

Recommended feed intakes:

  • Adult cattle: Offer instead of drinking water

  • Calves: Feed 2 litres twice a day instead of milk or milk replacer for 2 days, thereafter mix 1 litre solution with 1 litre milk or milk replacer and feed twice a day for 2 days

  • Adult sheep: Offer instead of drinking water

  • Lambs: Feed 250ml twice a day instead of milk or milk replacer for 2 days, thereafter mix 125ml solution with 125ml milk or milk replacer and feed twice a day for 2 days

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HANDY INFORMATION 

SUPPLEMENTATION ON VELD OR PASTURE

The objective in supplementary feeding programs is to correct deficiencies and/or imbalances in nutrients and minerals in the forage made available to livestock. Due to the seasonality of our rainfall, natural veld or planted pasture goes through periods of ample growth followed by dry spells where not only the availability of forage is scarce, but the nutrient content and digestibility of the forage decreases

SUPPLEMENTATION VERSUS SUBSTITUTION

Supplementation involves contributing nutrients to correct deficiencies in nutrient content of natural veld or planted pasture.  Substitution is where the natural veld or planted pasture intake is reduced and displaced in favour of the compound/home-mixed feed that is given to livestock.  A guideline is that 25-30% of total intake, or an amount not exceeding 1 % of body weight, should be supplemented, otherwise substitution of the natural veld or planted pasture takes place


RUMEN STIMULATION

The Prolick series of products incorporates a mixture of starches and sugars as part of their base ingredients.  This supplies rapidly fermentable carbohydrates to the rumen microbes. This alone is not sufficient to ensure high fibre digestibility and intake of forage. The incorporation of NPN (non-protein nitrogen) or natural protein in most licks contributes vital nitrogen to the microbes and acts as a rumen stimulant

The use of ionophores (monensin, lasalocid) in some products also improves fermentation in the rumen and aids in the prevention of acidosis. The ionophore inhibits the lactic acid producing bacteria, without influencing the lactic acid utilizing bacteria, thus helping to control the reduction in rumen pH associated with a build-up of lactic acid from rapid fermentation of grain in starch


PHOSPHATE (MINERAL) SUPPLEMENTATION

South African soils and natural veld are extremely phosphorus deficient. Phosphorus supplementation has a large impact on cow/ewe weight, reproduction and calf/lamb performance.  The best time to supplement phosphorus is on green summer veld or planted pasture when animals are in a positive mass balance (gaining weight).  The better the quality of grazing and thus the potential for production, the better the effect of phosphorus supplementation and the efficiency of phosphorus utilization.  Conversely, supplementing phosphorus at high levels during the winter (when dead or dormant forage is available) could induce weight loss in livestock and should thus be limited.  The aim with phosphorus supplementation is to achieve intakes of 12 grams of P/cow/day and 1.5 grams of P/sheep/day during the growing season, and to limit phosphorus supplementation to 4gP/cow/day during the dormant season

Calcium supplementation goes hand in hand with phosphorus supplementation.  Excessive supplementation of calcium acts as an antagonist to most of those trace minerals that positively influence fertility and general animal health.  For that reason, supplementation of calcium in the Prolick range (except feedlot products) is limited to ensure a ratio of 2-3:1 of calcium to phosphorus, to ensure optimal growth and fertility

Likewise, sulphur acts as an antagonist to trace minerals and the nitrogen to sulphur ratio has therefore also been limited to a ratio of between 10:1 and 14:1, which is in the range that ensures effective microbial protein synthesis in the rumen


PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION DURING THE DRY SEASON

The primary nutrient shortage in dry winter forage is protein.  When the protein content of dry winter forage declines below 7% (dry matter basis) the digestibility of the forage decreases which can lead to lower intakes.  This results in reproductive animals losing weight and calving/Iambing in poor condition with consequently lower milk production and low weaning weights

Protein supplementation in the form of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) has proved to prevent or reduce the loss of weight in livestock over the dry season.  The supplementation of NPN (mainly urea) increases the digestibility of the low quality roughage and increases intake to prevent weight loss.  Protein supplements are often called Maintenance licks.  The aim with maintenance licks is to supplement 150 to 220 grams of crude protein/cow/day

The prevention of weight loss in the dry season (±180 days) leads to reproductive livestock calving or lambing in better condition with heavier weaning weights and better re-conception rates.  The objective of protein supplementation is therefore to prevent weight loss, but also to supplement trace minerals and Vitamin A in order to maximize re-conception in the following mating season

Various methods are used to gauge when to start feeding protein:

  1. Ammonia nitrogen in rumen fluid is less than 8mg/100mI

  2. Blood urea nitrogen falls below 8mg/dl

  3. Condition of livestock

When body condition is used as the criterion, mistakes can be made due to weight loss having already occurred by the time you notice (up to 20 kg loss in beef animals) a drop in condition score.  This is where TRANSITION LICKS have their application

Salt hunger and salt quality are important aspects to take into consideration when feeding maintenance licks.  In order to facilitate the transition from phosphate supplementation to protein supplementation and to avoid salt hunger/urea poisoning (due to high intakes of the maintenance lick where the predominant nitrogen source is urea) the following two strategies can be adopted:

  1. A 3% phosphate lick (50kg Summerphos P9 + 100kg salt) can be fed for the last two weeks of the growing season before feeding maintenance licks.  Ensure that intake are at least 200 grams/animal/day of this “transition” lick, before changing to a maintenance lick

  2. A three phase approach:

  • 50kg Summerphos P9 + 50kg Wínterbreker Readymix/Stoppelland Lek for two weeks

  • 50kg Summerphos P9 + 100kg Winterbreker Readymix/Stoppelland Lek for two weeks

  • Feed complete Winterbreker Readymix /Stoppelland Lek or home mix Bees Lekkonsentraat into a Maintenance Lick


PRODUCTION LICKS

The ideal is always to have enough winter forage available till the end of the dry season where maintenance licks can be fed until green forage is available.  If available forage runs low by the end of the dry season, maintenance lick supplementation will be insufficient to prevent weight loss and Production Licks will be required

Production Licks partially substitute forage by supplementation of energy by means of grains and their by-products (wheat bran, hominy chop).  Production licks can also be used to prevent weight loss during the first two months of lactation in order to increase conception rates in the following breeding season

CROP RESIDUES

Fattening/maintenance of cattle and sheep on crop residues such as maize stover/sorghum stover/wheat stubble, plus grain kernels spilt during harvesting, and the post-harvest residues of soya beans, beans and legume crops, should be encouraged.  Maize residue is often available in abundance, but an understanding of its nutritional value and proper supplementation is essential for economic use thereof, either for fattening or maintaining the breeding herd. 

Sheep fatten more successfully on maize crop residues than cattle, because they can pick up wasted kernels.  During the first two or three weeks on maize crop residues, their diet consists almost exclusively of kernels, even to the extent that acidosis may result.  Buffer Lick has been specifically designed to alleviate the negative effects of acidosis through the use of buffering and rumen stimulating agents

Grazing of standing crops (un-harvested or partially harvested, dried out) is gaining popularity and the same principles apply as in the use of post-harvest crop residues


GRASSLOTTING OR VELDLOTTING

Grasslotting entails the growth and fattening of cattle and sheep to their maximum potential on green summer veld/pasture with minimum inputs.  Beef farmers retain their weaners in April/May (summer rainfall area) and maintain them on a Maintenance Lick (Meadow Winterbreker Readymix) for the months of April to September.  At the beginning of October “long weaners” weigh approximately 240kg and are implanted with a growth stimulant and supplemented with a Production Lick (Meadow Beefbooster 18) to maximize growth on early, green summer veld (summer rainfall area) or pasture (all areas)

The optimal strategy for grasslotting is to:

  1. Ensure weaners are on good quality green summerveld/pasture;

  2. Use a growth stimulant and Production Lick in synchrony with green summerveld and/or pasture;

  3. Ensure that animals are free of parasites.

It is of great importance that livestock be fed supplements at least every second day and that there is sufficient trough space to ensure even intakes across the whole herd


MINERALS FOR OPTIMUM PRODUCTION AND REPRODUCTION

It is of utmost importance that the total mineral status of the livestock operation is adhered to when the supplementary program for a full year is planned

The macro minerals are calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P — the most important), sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), and sulphur (S).  Salt is used as an intake regulator and therefore sodium and chlorine are adequately supplemented. Phosphate supplements and protein supplements all contain phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sulphur at different levels

Six essential trace elements are added to all the licks, namely copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), iodine (I) and selenium (Se)(of which at least 25% is in an organic form).  Iron (Fe) is omitted, as there is sufficient of this trace mineral in drinking water and forage in South Africa

With phosphate supplementation during the growing season and protein supplementation during the dormant season, calving/lambing percentages can often be increased to 80/100%. It is only when an efficient mineral/trace element supplementary program is added to the phosphate/protein program that calving/lambing percentages can be increased to above 90/120%


VOLUNTARY INTAKE OF LICKS

It must be noted that lick intakes are variable.  In years with good dry season grazing (even rainfall throughout the rainy season) voluntary intake of licks can be lower than expected.  This should be seen as a positive effect, which will result in a saving to the farmer.  Ruminants have the ability to regulate their intake of Maintenance Licks according to forage quality.  Ensure that forage is always available ad lib.  If forage availability is insufficient, it might lead to excessive Winter Lick intake, which can lead to urea poisoning

SUPPLEMENTATION CHOICE AND PROGRAM

The nutritive value of sweetveld and sourveld varies extensively and supplementation programs of energy, protein and minerals should be based on fluctuations in specific locations.  Grass and/or pasture species differ in quality and amount of dry matter yield which will determine which supplementary feed is required.  The production status of the livestock will also determine which products to use, whether fattening on the veld/pasture or maintaining the breeding herd.  Consult SNYMAN FEEDS for judicious use and planning of a supplementary program and customized supplementary products


UREA

The following factors are important:

  1. The synthesis of microbial protein in the rumen from urea as assisted by rapidly fermentable carbohydrates (starches and sugars) which degrade at about the same rate as urea.  This not only lowers the pH of the rumen and the activity of urease, thus slowing down the production of ammonia, but also activates and increases the rumen microbial population

  2. Urea intake should be gradual and over a long period to increase its efficiency of utilization and decrease the risk of poisoning.  12 to 14 grams of urea intake at once would be fatal to a 50kg sheep.  However, intake of 55 grams of urea over a whole day have shown no negative effects.  The safety margin for cattle is 120 grams of urea

  3. The presence of natural protein in the licks improves the utilization of urea

  4. Urea is water-soluble. Licks that become saturated with water causes urea to dissolve.  Livestock that drink this solution can be poisoned.  Ensure that licks are protected from rain

Given the above factors, the risk of urea poisoning is still omnipresent and care should be taken to use licks as prescribed.  Limit the intakes of licks to that which is expected.  Make sure adequate forage is available at all times and that licks are protected from becoming wet, and the troughs have sufficient drainage.  Take note of the transition lick strategy to prevent salt hunger and excessive Winter Lick intake.  Do not feed lick concentrates as such (without mixing), but adhere to proper mixing ratios as per instruction on the bag labels.  The most common cause of urea poisoning of ruminant livestock is when urea-containing concentrates are fed without mixing. 

UREA WARNING

Feed with this warning contains feed-grade urea and thus must be mixed and fed strictly according to recommendations:

  1. Vinegar is an effective remedy against NPN (non-protein nitrogen) poisoning. Mix with equal amounts of water.  Dose half a bottle per calf or large sheep or 2-4 bottles per head of cattle.  (1 bottle = 750m1)

  2. Protect these feeds against rain. NPN is soluble and animals drinking such a solution can be poisoned

  3. Do not feed these feeds indiscriminately with other feed containing NPN.  Consult an Animal Scientist

  4. Mix concentrates thoroughly with the prescribed ingredients

  5. This is a supplement and not a feed. Sufficient grazing and/or roughage must be available at all times

  6. Ensure that feed troughs are always full and allow animals free access to grazing

  7. A salt-phosphate lick must be fed for a minimum of seven days prior to feeding any animal a NPN containing lick